*this is a continuation of notes/ excerpts from the pages earmarked while reading A History of Civilizations by Fernand Braudel...
on Industrialization of Europe:
Pierre Joseph Proudhon, (1809), Ferdinand Lasalle (1825- killed in duel in 1864), Karl Marx (1818) Das Kapital (1867)
The French Revolution had failed because it had not organized the economy and consumption.
Proudhon was so attached to liberty as to almost be an anarchist. He sought a social dialectic which could illuminate scientifically a society on the move, in all its contradictions. It was necessary to resolve them, he thought, in order to grasp the social machinery that they implied.
Owen, Cabet, and Fourier founded the Phalansteries.
Jean Jaures was the leader of the French Socialist Party. He was assassinated in Brussels 31 July 1914.
It was its reinterpretation by Jean-Paul Sartre and Maurice Merleau-Ponty that transmitted it to the rest of the world, and especially to Latin America.
on Unity in Europe:
Charles V (1500-1558) sought hegemony in Europe; his dream was to conquer Christendom and use his authority to defend it against the infidel Muslims and the Protestant Reformation. For Charles V, the ‘imperial idea’ had its roots in the historic Spanish crusade.
“Everything leads me to believe that there cannot be a united and effective Europe without supranationality. The so-called ‘Europe of the States’ is a narrow, inadequate idea. The longer I live, the harder I shall fight against the rule of unanimity and the veto. A few weeks ago, I was at the United Nations and saw the Soviet veto at work. More recently still, I had a similar experience at Nato: on the German question and Berlin, the opposition of one government prevented Nato from taking a firm and constructive position. What is happening now at the Palais des Congres on the subject of Europe’s Common Agriculture Policy is very far from making me change my mind. In these discussions I look in vain for the spirit of Community. Everyone is defending the interests of his own farmers… If the accursed rule of unanimity were abolished, the negotiations in the Council would go much faster… We are offered a Europe of the States in the field of foreign policy. What would that do except create chaos? All the member States bar one might discuss the question of Communist China, and the one might block all decisions… So I wonder if it would be at all a good idea to give up the spirit of supranationality in these matters.” – Paul-Henri Spaak, Belgian Foreign Minister, 10 January 1962
“Unity thus based on force can only provoke an explosion, once the grip of the dominant nation is relaxed. Let it be said in passing that today we have an example of that before our eyes: i.e. the States grouped round the power of Russia in the Warsaw Pact are controlled, economically as well as politically, only in the interests of Russia.”